Gina Anderson Personality Class Assignment

Re:Module 1 DQ 1
Personality is best described as the differences among people that make up the character of that person, including how one thinks, feels, and in some cases behaves (APA, n.d.). Because personality makes up both how one thinks and behaves, there can be some dissonance in this pairing. A person can think one thing, but behave another way causing conflict which will result in a change in usually one or the other. In some ways, people have been known to overcompensate by inflating their own values or judging others more to make up for their own dissonance (Barkan, Ayal, Gino, & Ariely, 2012). In other ways, people may say and believe they will do something based on their thinking, but then actually behave in a completely different way.
For example, I often think and say I should exercise and I have a very motivated personality in many ways yet I don’t exercise. This is a gap that exists in many people, which resulted in research on this very topic. MacCann, Mullan, & Roberts (2015) found that personality accounts for 45% and 39% of variance in integration and behavior for exercise behaviors relating to personality. This is a good indication that personality does not always predict behaviors but can some of the time. However, some research indicates that extroversion can moderate the dissonance mentioned above (Matz, Hofstedt, & Wood, 2008).
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Personality. Retrieved September 15, 2016, from
Barkan, R., Ayal, S., Gino, F., & Ariely, D. (2012). The pot calling the kettle black: Distancing response to ethical dissonance. Journal Of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(4), 757-773. doi:10.1037/a0027588
MacCann, C., Todd, J., Mullan, B. A., & Roberts, R. D. (2015). Can personality bridge the intention-behavior gap to predict who will exercise?. American Journal Of Health Behavior, 39(1), 140-147. doi:10.5993/AJHB.39.1.15
Matz, D. C., Hofstedt, P. M., & Wood, W. (2008). Extraversion as a moderator of the cognitive dissonance associated with disagreement. Personality And Individual Differences, 45(5), 401-405. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.05.014

Maren Alitagtag 

1 posts
Re:Module 1 DQ 1
Briefly define personality. Does one's personality always predict one's behavior? Why or why not?
There are so many ways I have read that define personality, that this question is actually quite difficult.  I would state that personality is the combination of innate and nurtured traits unique to each person that affects their internal and external responses to certain stimuli.  Having said that, I am not sure that personality will always be a predictor of behavior in that person.  Two people who may have similar amounts of extroversion in them may respond in very different ways in certain situations based upon their upbringing and other issues, such as cultural or religious expectations.  I do believe that both positive and negative personality traits have a strong effect on behavior, such as was shown in a recent study regarding poor leadership qualities and some of the more negative sides of behavior in the big five factor theory (Kaiser, et al, 2015).  However, using the word always seems a bit over the top.  For instance, if I have been out walking and in the hot sun, when suddenly I see a drinking fountain, is stopping for a drink a personality trait or simply a physiological response to a biological need?  Now, on the other hand, not stopping because of a fear of public germs or water sample may in fact be a personality led behavior.  I think it is a difficult balance to maintain the idea that personality can predict behavior, but not necessarily always predict behavior. 
Kaiser, R. B., LeBreton, J. M., & Hogan, J. (2015). The Dark Side of Personality and Extreme Leader Behavior. Applied Psychology: An International Review64(1), 55-92. doi:10.1111/apps.12024

Kendrick Kim 

1 posts
Re:Module 1 DQ 1
Briefly define personality. Does one's personality always predict one's behavior? Why or why not?

According to Waker (2016) week 1 lecture and the citation by Walker (2016) of Ryckman (2013) personality has different definitions among each individuals where the definition of personality would be defined by behaviors, attitudes, and viewpoints of life. Walker (2016) discusses in this week’s lecture notes that individuals from whatever view point they are coming from is that personalities do not change significantly during ones course of a life time (Walker, 2016). Ryckman (2013) as cited by Walker (2016) defines personality to be an individual’s thought pattern/process, feelings, and behavior. It is noted by Ryckman (2013) as cited by Walker (2016) that the thought patterns do not change within the individual over time, however traumatic events or environmental influences can have an effect and influence an individual’s personality. For example (personal note, please keep this confidential), a friend of mind had such an outgoing personality, confident, and really sociable with people, however one night after coming home from a club, he was attacked by individuals because he was transgendered and identified as female, so these attackers raped and left him in his own bodily fluids. I was an emergency contact, so when I received a call, I was horrified and saw that as the days progressed, he became distant, withdrawn, and the happiness and bubbly personality was gone. To this day, he has never been the same and his personality, behavior has certainly changed and those of us that knew him/her, saw that our friend has become different. He has become more aggressive and confrontational and always on alert of the surroundings.

Capsi, A., Roberts, B. W., & Shiner, R. L. (2005) Personality development: Stability and change. Annual Review of Psychology56(1), 453-484. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141913.
Ryckman, R. M. (2013). Theories of personality (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. ISBN-13: 9781111830663. 
Walker (2016) Week One Lecture: Introduction and research methods, What is personality. PSY840-Personality Psychology. Grand Canyon University

Question from the professor

What was Freud’s definition of personality per a psychoanalytic approach?

What was Freud’s definition of personality per a psychoanalytic approach?

Is it different than what we have today?


How does nature vs nurture fit into a “personality?”


How does nature vs nurture fit into a “personality?”

Are our personalities shaped, are they genetic, both etc?

Please explain and back your discussion.

Feel free to jump in and discuss further also!


Dr. N

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